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Interpretation of 2014 Nobel prize in Physics: a lighting revolution in twenty-first Century

Font Size: [Big][Mid][Small] 2015-10-6    Views: 361    

October 7, announced the Nobel Prize in physics, Nobel Prize in physics two Japanese scientists and a Japanese American scientists share the year 2014, they respectively are Nagoya University scientists Akasaki Yong (Isamu Akasaki) and Amano Hiroshi Hiroshi Amano, and has employed a Nichia (Nichia chemicals), University of California, Santa Barbara, a Japanese American scientists Shuji Nakamura (Shuji Nakamura).

From Nichia chemical of the company can be seen, this year's Nobel Prize in physics and light emitting diode, Nichia chemical is a home in northeastern Shikoku, Japan Tokushima city company, to develop a new type of high efficiency and energy saving LED lamp mainly, the research direction of the three scientists are blue light-emitting diode to let mankind with more energy-efficient LED lights.

Compared with the traditional artificial light source, the LED lamp needs less energy to achieve the same effect, the high efficiency and energy saving LED lamp can save the earth resources

Blue light emitting diode (LED) is a kind of environmental friendly type light source, the Japanese scientists that the 21st century is the LED lights in the world, and the 20th century belongs to incandescent lighting, in the past half century or so time, red and green light emitting diodes are used a lot in North America and other developed countries and regions, but the blue light emitting diode is truly revolutionary lighting technology.

In order to research the blue light-emitting diode, professionals all over the world are therefore struggle for decades, although the study direction in the presence of high risk, but returns is very huge, we can enhance lighting technology to new heights. So the Nobel prize in physics for the three place in this field with outstanding contribution to the scientists is granted, Nobel Alfred prize winner should lead the progress of human civilization, this technology allows us to have a more efficient, long-lasting light source.

The working principle of light-emitting diode, the upper left is the working principle of LED, below the working principle of blue LED

The light-emitting diode comprises a multilayer semiconductor material, according to the working principle of LED lights, power conversion for the photon, quite to the other light sources improves the lighting efficiency, traditional lighting systems such as incandescent lighting will be most of the electricity to conversion into heat, only a small amount of conversion for the photon, apparently such a lighting system conversion efficiency is very low.

Incandescent lamps and halogen lamps and the working principle is based on the electric heating, the current through the wire makes the light, a lot of energy is wasted in the electric power. The principle of fluorescent lamp with incandescent lamp, halogen lamp, it is through the gas discharge to produce light and heat, the energy loss will be less than incandescent lamp, so also known as low energy light bulb, but in the LED after the advent of "low energy light bulb" seems to not belong to fluorescent lamp.

Lamp new LED technology needs less energy and release the source more powerful, at least in the conversion rate will be significantly improved, the world power consumption of nearly 1/4 for lighting, if all of the use of energy-efficient LED lights, you can save the earth's resources, feedback to the economic benefit is very obvious the LED lamp, not only durable, lighting efficiency is higher, according to the service life of the incandescent lamp is usually 1000 hours, more than this time will be burnt out after the filament of fluorescent lamp, and lighting time of 10000 hours, is 10 times of incandescent lamp, so persistent better LED lights, can reach 100000 hours, thereby greatly reducing the consumption of materials.

LED technology to us is not strange, can be found in mobile phones, computers and other modern electronic equipment, and a red light emitting diode in the late 1950s is developed, is used in digital watches, calculators and other equipment, for the shorter wavelength blue LEDs, many laboratories have tried to develop a, but without success. The research direction of the Akasaki Yong Amano Hiroshi is research and development of LED lighting system of material, through thousands of experiments, they found that gallium nitride on the blue light of LED performance is very good, can be used for making blue LED light source, had no one can use gallium nitride crystal to manufacture high-quality LED light source. Nichia Nakamura Shuji also chose to replace the gallium nitride crystal ZnSe, as the basic material of the blue light of LED.

1986, and Amano Hiroshi Akasaki Yong completed the first research and development of high quality GaN crystal and the preparation method of the preparation is high quality GaN can be obtained through the sapphire substrate coated on aluminum nitride, several years after them again in research and development of LED light source p-type layer made breakthrough, through scanning electron microscopy experiments, they found that the materials of luminous efficiency better, 1992 when they have been able to create emit bright blue light diode. And Nakamura's R & D also in 1988, he also succeeded in creating high-quality Gan to 90 years of the 20th century, the two study groups to further enhance the efficiency of blue light of LED lighting, and the invention of a blue laser, used to cut out more sharp beam, due to the short wavelength of blue light, so in the same area can hold more information, to produce a more powerful laser printer, LCD TVs, computers, mobile phones and other.

Can be predicted that the progress of blue LED technology would be a revolution in lighting field in the 21st century, in the future, we will through the technology to produce and natural light is close to the light source, which is conducive to the regulation of our biological clock, so the technology can for greenhouse cultivation, and even the future Mars settlements.